Daily Reader – US Constitution in 45 Days

 

US Constitution
US Constitution

Day-1

The Constitution of the United States

Preamble Note

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


Article I – The Legislative Branch Note

Day-2

Section 1 – The Legislature

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2 – The House

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

(Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.) (The previous sentence in parentheses was modified by the 14th Amendment, section 2.) The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Day-3 (Article I – The Legislative Branch cont’d)

Section 3 – The Senate

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, (chosen by the Legislature thereof,) (The preceding words in parentheses superseded by 17th Amendment, section 1.) for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; (and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by the 17th Amendment, section 2.)

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Day-4 (Article I – The Legislative Branch cont’d)

Section 4 – Elections, Meetings

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Place of Chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall (be on the first Monday in December,) (The preceding words in parentheses were superseded by the 20th Amendment, section 2.) unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Day-5 (Article I – The Legislative Branch cont’d)

Section 5 – Membership, Rules, Journals, Adjournment

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two-thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Day-6 (Article I – The Legislative Branch cont’d)

Section 6 – Compensation

(The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States.) (The preceding words in parentheses were modified by the 27th Amendment.) They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Day-7 (Article I – The Legislative Branch cont’d)

Section 7 – Revenue Bills, Legislative Process, Presidential Veto

All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Day-8 (Article I – The Legislative Branch cont’d)

Section 8 – Powers of Congress

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Day-9 (Article I – The Legislative Branch cont’d)

Section 9 – Limits on Congress

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

(No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.) (Section in parentheses clarified by the 16th Amendment.)

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State.

Day-10 (Article I – The Legislative Branch cont’d)

Section 10 – Powers prohibited of States

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.


Day-11

Article II – The Executive Branch Note

Section 1 – The President Note1 Note2

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

(The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not lie an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President.) (This clause in parentheses was superseded by the 12th Amendment.)

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

(In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.) (This clause in parentheses has been modified by the 20th and 25th Amendments.)

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Day-12 (The Executive Branch cont’d) 

Section 2 – Civilian Power over Military, Cabinet, Pardon Power, Appointments

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Day-13 (The Executive Branch cont’d) 

Section 3 – State of the Union, Convening Congress

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4 – Disqualification

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.


Day-14

Article III – The Judicial Branch Note

Section 1 – Judicial powers

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2 – Trial by Jury, Original Jurisdiction, Jury Trials

(The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; to Controversies between two or more States; between a State and Citizens of another State; between Citizens of different States; between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.) (This section in parentheses is modified by the 11th Amendment.)

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3 – Treason Note

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.


Day-15

Article IV – The States

Section 1 – Each State to Honor all others

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2 – State citizens, Extradition

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

(No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.) (This clause in parentheses is superseded by the 13th Amendment.)

Section 3 – New States

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new States shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4 – Republican government

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.


Day-16

Article V – Amendment Note1Note2Note3

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.


Day-17

Article VI – Debts, Supremacy, Oaths

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.


Day-18

Article VII – Ratification Documents

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.


Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names. Note

Go Washington – President and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire – John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts – Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King

Connecticut – Wm Saml Johnson, Roger Sherman

New York – Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey – Wil Livingston, David Brearley, Wm Paterson, Jona. Dayton

Pensylvania – B Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv Morris

Delaware – Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jun, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco. Broom

Maryland – James McHenry, Dan of St Tho Jenifer, Danl Carroll

Virginia – John Blair, James Madison Jr.

North Carolina – Wm Blount, Richd Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

South Carolina – J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler

Georgia – William Few, Abr Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary


Day-19

The Amendments Note

The following are the Amendments to the Constitution. The first ten Amendments collectively are commonly known as the Bill of Rights. History


Amendment 1 – Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.


Day-20 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 2 – Right to Bear Arms. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.


Day-21 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 3 – Quartering of Soldiers. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.


Day-22 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 4 – Search and Seizure. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.


Day-23 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 5 – Trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings. Ratified 12/15/1791.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.


Day-24 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 6 – Right to Speedy Trial, Confrontation of Witnesses. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.


Day-25 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 7 – Trial by Jury in Civil Cases. Ratified 12/15/1791.

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.


Day-26 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 8 – Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Ratified 12/15/1791.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


Day-27 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 9 – Construction of Constitution. Ratified 12/15/1791.

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.


Day-28 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 10 – Powers of the States and People. Ratified 12/15/1791. Note

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.


Day-29 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 11 – Judicial Limits. Ratified 2/7/1795. Note History

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.


Day-30 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 12 – Choosing the President, Vice-President. Ratified 6/15/1804. Note History The Electoral College

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;

The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.


Day-31 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 13 – Slavery Abolished. Ratified 12/6/1865. History

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Day-32 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 14 – Citizenship Rights. Ratified 7/9/1868. Note History

1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


Day-33 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 15 – Race No Bar to Vote. Ratified 2/3/1870. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Day-34 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 16 – Status of Income Tax Clarified. Ratified 2/3/1913. Note History

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.


Day-35 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 17 – Senators Elected by Popular Vote. Ratified 4/8/1913. History

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


Day-36 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 18 – Liquor Abolished. Ratified 1/16/1919. Repealed by Amendment 21, 12/5/1933. History

1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


Day-37 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 19 – Women’s Suffrage. Ratified 8/18/1920. History

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Day-38 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 20 – Presidential, Congressional Terms. Ratified 1/23/1933. History

1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.


Day-39 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 21Amendment 18 Repealed. Ratified 12/5/1933. History

1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


 

Day-40 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 22 – Presidential Term Limits. Ratified 2/27/1951. History

1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.


Day-41 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 23 – Presidential Vote for District of Columbia. Ratified 3/29/1961. History

1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Day-42 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 24Poll Tax Barred. Ratified 1/23/1964. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Day-43 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 25 – Presidential Disability and Succession. Ratified 2/10/1967. Note History

1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.


Day-44 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 26 – Voting Age Set to 18 Years. Ratified 7/1/1971. History

1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


Day-45 (The Amendments cont’d)

Amendment 27 – Limiting Congressional Pay Increases. Ratified 5/7/1992. History

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

HALL SUPPORTS STATE OF TEXAS

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                   CONTACT:  Janet Poppleton

March 25, 2010

  WASHINGTON, DC. . .  Rep. Ralph Hall (R-TX/4) joined Texas Republicans today in holding a press conference in the Capitol in support of the Texas Attorney General’s court challenge to the health care reform bill that the President signed into law on Tuesday.

            “This health care bill encroaches on the rights of the States as outlined in the Constitution,” Hall said.  “It imposes new federal Medicaid enrollment standards and dramatic   Medicaid spending increases on the States, including mandatory spending of more than $24 billion in the State of Texas.”

            On Tuesday, Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott and 12 state attorneys general filed a legal action challenging the constitutionality of the federal health care law.  They contend that the new law infringes upon Americans’ protected individual liberties, encroaches upon the states’ guaranteed sovereignty, forces states to spend billions of additional dollars on entitlement programs, and violates the Tenth Amendment, which states that powers not granted to the federal government nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the states or the people.

             “These are legitimate concerns – among many others – in the President’s health care law,” Hall said.  “I support this court challenge, and I am also cosponsoring several bills in the House to repeal the Democrats’ flawed health care reforms and to prevent funds from being used for their implementation.”

            “This law is a massive expansion of government control of one-sixth of the economy and does not have the support of a majority of the people nor bipartisan support from the Congress,” Hall reiterated.  “My constituents are overwhelmingly against this radical change and are worried about the cost of these reforms on taxpayers, the fear of rising health care costs and rationing of care, and a government takeover of our health care system.”

             Hall also repeated his concerns about the deals that were made to achieve the votes for passage.  “Deals were made in the Senate in exchange for votes, and until a week ago, the House did not have the votes to pass this bill.  Under the statute of limitations, we have five years to investigate what happened and prosecute those who offered or accepted bribes in exchange for their vote.  The American people deserve to know the truth.”

Texas Health Care Press Conference
Texas Health Care Press Conference

HALL SUPPORTS REPEAL OF PRESIDENT’S

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                   CONTACT:  Janet Poppleton

March 23, 2010

 WASHINGTON, DC . . . Rep. Ralph Hall (R-TX/4) announced today that he is cosponsoring two bills to repeal the health care reform legislation passed by Democrats on Sunday and signed into law today by President Obama.  He is cosponsoring another bill that would prevent any funds from being spent to implement those health care reforms. 

             “The Democrats ignored the will of the majority of Americans and crammed this bill through the House,” Hall said.  “They used special favors and political tactics to gain the votes of wavering Democrats, but this battle is not over.  My conservative colleagues and I who voted our districts and opposed this bill will not give up until we overturn this bill and start over with some common-sense reforms that all Americans and both political parties can support.”

            “Americans had a year to consider the President’s health reform proposals – and time and again, they rejected this costly government takeover of health care,” Hall said.  “But the President and Democrats in Congress chose not to listen to the people and instead pushed this bill through.”  The measure passed by a narrow vote of 219 – 212 late Sunday evening, with all Republicans and 34 Democrats voting against it.”

             Hall is a cosponsor of bills introduced by Reps. Steve King of Iowa and Michele Bachmann of Minnesota to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.  He also is a cosponsor of a bill introduced by Rep. Ted Poe of Texas to prohibit funding to implement or enforce the individual mandate to purchase health insurance – a provision that raises Constitutional questions and could result in the hiring of thousands of IRS agents to enforce the mandate.

            “This flawed legislation will increase the burden on taxpayers, place current health care plans at risk, reduce benefits to our seniors, pave the way for rationing of health care and federal funding of abortions, and cost jobs,” Hall said.  “I will add my name to any and all legitimate efforts to repeal this costly and intrusive government takeover of health care.”

# # #

HALL OPPOSES HEALTH CARE REFORM

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE                                                      CONTACT:  Janet Poppleton

March 22, 2010

 WASHINGTON, DC . . .  Rep. Ralph Hall (R-TX/4) continued his opposition to the Democrats’ health care reform by voting “no” on the Senate health care bill and “no” on the Reconciliation bill in votes late Sunday evening in the House of Representatives, but the Democratic majority prevailed along party lines.  The Senate bill passed by a vote of 219 – 212, with all Republicans and 34 Democrats voting against it.  The Reconciliation bill passed by a vote of 220 – 211, with all Republicans and 33 Democrats voting “no.”

            House action on the Senate bill clears it for signing by the President, but the Reconciliation bill is still subject to Senate consideration and the Senate’s normal amendment process.  Whether the Senate passes the Reconciliation bill remains unclear, and that process could take weeks.  If the Senate fails to pass the Reconciliation bill, the underlying Senate bill would be the law of the land. 

            “In all my years in Congress, I’ve never seen anything like this where the President and the Democrats in Congress don’t care what the majority of the people want,” said Hall.  “It’s a hard deal – but we’re going to take them on at every hedgerow for the rest of the year.”

            “A reform bill of this magnitude – one that affects all Americans and a significant portion of our economy – should have the support of a majority of Americans and bipartisan support in Congress,” Hall said.  “Unfortunately, the Democrats were not interested in a bipartisan bill, and they used special favors to gain the votes of wavering Democrats and cram their reform bill through Congress.”

            “If Republicans take the Floor back next year, I would favor subpoenaing those who may have bribed these Members and put them under oath,” Hall said.  “Offering a bribe is as criminal as accepting one, and we need to see what was offered in exchange for votes.”

            “This is not a good plan for Americans,” Hall said.  “Families and small businesses deserve access to high-quality, affordable health coverage.  Medical decisions should be made by patients and their doctors – not by government bureaucrats.  The Democrats’ plan is a trillion dollar government takeover of health care that raises premiums, raises taxes, rations care, costs jobs, cuts Medicare, drives millions out of the coverage they currently have, and paves the way for federally funded abortions.”

            This plan also will pass financial burdens to States, including Texas.  In a conference call with Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott, Hall said that Abbott raised the prospect of Texas joining other States in raising a constitutional challenge to the reform bill.  Governor Rick Perry, Lt. Gov. David Dewhurst, and Speaker Joe Straus also wrote to the Texas Delegation on Sunday, urging them to vote “no” on this bill that will increase the burden on Texas taxpayers by an additional $24.3 billion over 10 years in Medicaid spending. 

            “Another critical concern with this bill is the provision that will allow abortions under at least one of the Federal plans,” Hall said.  “For pro-life Americans like me, this is unacceptable.”  Democrats maintain that this issue can be resolved by an Executive Order from the White House prohibiting federal funding for abortions.  However, legal experts at the U.S. Catholic Conference of Bishops, National Right to Life Committee, Americans United for Life, and Family Research Council contend that no Executive Order can override a statutory mandate unless Congress passes a law that specifically prohibits federal funding from being used in this manner.  Republicans attempted to ensure that the Hyde language regarding abortion remains the law of the land by offering a Motion to Recommit the bill with the corrections.  The motion failed by a vote of 199 – 232, with all Republicans and 21 Democrats voting “yes.”

            “This bill also puts at risk the health care programs for our Veterans and our Senior Citizens,” Hall said.  “It does not fully protect the health care programs provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military’s Tricare system, and it cuts spending on Medicare and Medicare Advantage, reducing benefits for our seniors.”

            The Republicans offered some 80 amendments to be made in order by the Rules Committee, but the Democratic majority on the Rules Committee rejected all of these, voting instead to limit debate by passing a “closed rule” for consideration of the legislation. Hall offered two amendments, one to require a social security number for eligibility to participate in an insurance exchange and another to require a valid photo ID to apply for Medicaid or SCHIP, but these were rejected on a 4 to 9 party-line vote.

             “An overwhelming majority of my constituents are opposed to this bill, and on their behalf, I will continue to fight its implementation and fight for its repeal,” Hall said.  “I voted my district, and I am disappointed that many Members of Congress chose not to do so.”

# # #

A New Declaration of Independence

 

Reprinted by permission of Capt. Jim Kinney, USN (Ret), founder of Inspire & Ignite

Revised 04/19/2009

The format of the original Declaration of Independence is reproduced here as closely as possible, including the preamble, a list of grievances and proposed action while allowing it to represent our current situation and intent.

When in the course of human events a government seeks to enslave the people by creating massive debt and ignoring the will of the governed, it is the rightful responsibility of the people to institute the changes necessary in order to ensure their prosperity and the prosperity of the generations to come. Respect for the opinions of all the citizens involved requires that they should be informed of the issues which compel the drastic action being proposed.

We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,

Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these basic God given rights, it is the right of the people to alter it. The changes must be based on these principles and organized in such a form to most likely to provide for their safety and happiness. Wisdom dictates that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes. Our experience has shown that we are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to rush to change the existing situation. But, when a long history of political corruption and abuse of power threatens the very foundations of the government it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government and provide new safeguards for their future security.

The history of the Congress is a history of rampant corruption and self advancement aimed at the perpetuation of personal privilege and personal power to the detriment of the United States and the persistent and continual transition of power from the states to the central government is a contradiction of the original intent of the founding fathers. To prove this let facts be submitted for full consideration.

  • The Congress, although recognizing the dangers and corrupting influence of unlimited terms in office and passing a constitutional amendment limiting the span of presidential service, have consistently resisted any efforts by the various states to limit their own length of service.
  • The Congress has consistently proven incapable of self control and repeatedly reached into the public coffers to enrich themselves with unmerited pay raises. And, not wishing to be exposed to public scrutiny in this matter they have enacted legislation which automatically increases their pay without the necessity of a public vote.
  • In an attempt to alter the original intent of the constitution without amending it through the appropriate constitutional process, the Congress has applied unconstitutional litmus tests to judicial nominees in order to pack the court with judges more concerned with political correctness and international opinion than the actual intent of our founding documents.
  • The Congress has proven itself incapable of any self discipline with regards to balancing the federal budget, instead filling the annual budget with pet projects which are designed to provide them job security or enrich their family and friends or both at the expense of the public.
  • The Congress has exhibited an imperial attitude towards the use of public funds, passing trillions of dollars in spending and running up trillions of dollars in public debt without even the courtesy of a single public hearing. In some cases passing spending bills without having read the full content.
  • In contravention of the 10th Amendment to the constitution, the Congress has repeatedly mandated actions in the various states without providing funding to support the requirements thereby essentially imposing taxes and funding priorities on the citizens of the states without consideration for the constitutions of the various states which mandate an annual balanced budget.
  • The Congress has continually and without regard for the 10th amendment, usurped the prerogatives of the various states at every turn, demanding for themselves authority never intended by the founding fathers. Establishing cabinet positions and federal agencies encroaching on the sovereign rights of the various states.
  • The Congress has demonstrated repeatedly that they are incapable of providing appropriate oversight of their members. Depending on the majority party and the offender at the time; they have either ignored egregious violations of ethics and the law, or for political gain, pursued aggressive unmerited investigative actions against political opponents.
  • The Congress has, in an attempt to silence their critics and to protect their status as the ruling class, passed campaign laws limiting the free speech of political opponents McCain-Feingold being simply their latest attempt at perpetuating themselves in office.
  • The Congress has repeatedly voted themselves privileges not accorded common citizens under their authority, passing laws and exempting congressional members from the force of the law.
  • The Congress, in establishing “members only” privileges, often refuses to challenge a members’ use of the political process for the advancement of a personal agenda, expecting in return the same courtesy for their own positions. This “Point of Privilege” usually means that without debate they are able to obscure all of this from public scrutiny.
  • The Congress has taken their responsibility to “advise and consent” to presidential nominees to mean that they can refuse the nominee a vote on the floor of the Senate when the committee does not wish to advance the nomination knowing full well the full chamber would vote to confirm.
  • The Congress has abused the “Speech or Debate Clause” of the constitution to shield themselves from personal accountability to public laws.

This is by no means a complete list of grievances against the current political class that rules in the Congress, but is a list sufficient to support the call for a Second American Revolution to restore the vibrant federalism our founding fathers intended and to correct the never intended consequences of a professional ruling class perpetuating themselves in office at the expense of the well being of the country they have sworn to serve.

This Second American Revolution is not to be conducted with guns…but with ballots. It is the intention of this revolt against the current ruling class in Washington DC, to pass the “Restore America Amendment” as the 28th amendment to the Constitution. The Restore America Amendment will reduce the corrupting influences of the current political system and restore a significant level of federalism to the relationship between the various states and the central government while at the same time limiting the size of the federal government appropriately.

Fellow Patriots:

I invite you to browse the website of Inspire & Ignite and take advantage its many resources. http://www.inspireandignite.com/

John White

http://rockwallconservative.com/

Myth of Pro-Life Democrat – Eagle Forum

Schlafly:  Health care vote exposes the myth of the "pro-life Democrat"

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: March 21, 2010
CONTACT: Suzanne Bibby, suzanne@eagleforum.org
Washington, D.C. – Phyllis Schlafly, president and founder of the conservative grassroots public policy organization Eagle Forum, made the following remarks after the public announcement that formerly pro-life Democrat Bart Stupak (D-MI) will cast a “yes” vote for the Senate health care bill today in the House.
UPDATE: Just before 11pm Eastern, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (H.R. 3590) by a vote of 219 to 212 (Roll Call 165).

“It is naïve for any elected official, especially one who describes himself as ‘pro-life,’ to expect that a promise to issue an Executive Order that reasserts the intentions of the Hyde Amendment will be fulfilled by the most pro-abortion president to ever sit in the White House. Perhaps Mr. Stupak and his fellow pro-life Democrats forget that President Obama’s first Executive Order was the repeal of the Mexico City Policy to allow for international funding of abortion.”

“Not only would an Executive Order be rendered meaningless in the face of Congress passing legislation which actively provides for the massive expansion and funding of abortion services, but anyone who doubts the abortion tsunami which awaits this bill becoming law lives in a fantasy world.”

“Barack Obama has lined every existing federal agency with the most dedicated pro-abortion ideologues, and we know that he will continue this pattern of pro-abortion appointments when it comes time for him to fill the over-100 bureaucracies created to administer his socialized health care program.”

“Any formerly pro-life Democrat who voted ‘Yes’ on the Senate health care bill tonight will be forever remembered as being among the deciding votes which facilitated the largest expansion of abortion services since Roe v. Wade.”

“Mr. Stupak and his Democrat followers have now clarified that you cannot be pro-life and be a Democrat. If abortion was truly their biggest issue, they wouldn’t willfully align themselves with the Party of Death.”

“This vote has exposed the myth of the ‘pro-life Democrat.’ With this single vote, the Democratic Party has divided our nation into the Democrat Party of Death and the Republican Party of Life, and future elections will never be the same.”

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ObamaCare Passage – Texas GOP Response

REPUBLICAN PARTY OF TEXAS CHAIRMAN STATEMENT ON THE PASSAGE OF THE DEMOCRATS’ 2.5 TRILLION DOLLAR GOVERNMENT-RUN HEALTH CARE EXPERIMENT

 WASHINGTON – Republican Party of Texas Chairman Cathie Adams released the following statement tonight:

“This evening, following a series of backroom deals and arm twisting, President Barack Obama and Speaker Nancy Pelosi convinced their members to support a $2.5 trillion dollar government-run health care bill that increases taxes, raises premiums, slashes Medicare and does nothing to control the cost of healthcare.  This bill does nothing to help Texans struggling with rising insurance premiums, but instead is loaded with sweetheart deals and kickbacks for special interests, which seems to be just business as usual in Nancy Pelosi’s Democratic Congress. This bill saddles Texans with over $24 billion in new spending over the next ten years, spending which the Democrats in Washington are mandating but will not cover and which Texas cannot afford.  This bill creates a new army of over 16,000 IRS agents to enforce its oneruos new taxes and Democrat-imposed mandates.  This bill is not reform.

“Unfortunately for all Texans, our Democratic representatives in Congress ignored the consistent pleas of their constituents, asking them not to vote for such a reckless piece of legislation, and instead chose to stand with their party bosses in Washington.  Make no doubt about it, come November the people of Texas will come to the ballot box in droves to vote for Republican candidates who will listen to them and focus on creating an enviroment that promotes jobs in the Lone Star State – not a government takeover of their healthcare.

To those Obama-Reid-Pelosi Democrats in Texas, today we send a message: In November, Texans will remember.  It’s time to fire Nancy Pelosi as Speaker of the House, and the surest way to do that is to vote Republican in November.”  

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http://texasgop.org